Friday, May 22, 2020

Analysis of Bi-Lingualism and Biculturalism Phenomena Free Essay Example, 1000 words

An additional factor that I think has a connecting link to the level of acculturation is the age of the L2 student. I think that younger students find it easier to acculturate into the new environment. Chomsky opined that by a certain age the LAD is worn out and is no longer available by puberty. Indeed I do agree with this opinion. From my observation, adolescents (and more so adults) have great difficult acculturating in a new environment when the LAD is no longer available. This exacerbates the challenges of learning the L2 and presents the possibility of a poor outcome. The introduction to socio-linguistics as a course has paid substantial dividends to me. It has widened my horizons and made me come to appreciate the importance of all dialects and languages. I mention this because it relates to the attitude of one writer who believed some languages, such as the various lingua franca, pidgins and Creoles, have marginal status. As a child growing up, I had friends who were Jamaica ns. We all spoke the English language, but somehow they pronounced some of their words differently, such as mon for man. We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis of Bi-Lingualism and Biculturalism Phenomena or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page Both masters and slaves spoke a different language and for the development of the trade, a lingua franca was developed. The second stage of the development occurred because there was a need for social communication between the different social groups. Slaves came from different places and spoke different languages, hence the need for another type of lingua franca, called a pidgin.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

naturalistic observation Essay - 998 Words

ï‚ · Which author or institution is associated with coining the phrase, â€Å"the apartheid of schooling in America.† Selected Answer: U.S. Census Bureau Answers: Kozol U.S. Census Bureau Betson Michael ï‚ · Question 2 4 out of 4 points The ________ self-serving drive for pleasure conflicts with society’s norms for acceptable behavior. Selected Answer: ids Answers: egos superego’s ids latency stages ï‚ · Question 3 4 out of 4 points Which of the following is NOT one of the three levels of awareness identified by Freud? Selected Answer: repression Answers: conscious preconscious unconscious repression ï‚ · Question 4 0 out of 4†¦show more content†¦Which of the following is one of these developmental planes? Selected Answer: inner speech Answers: intrapsychological category inner speech sociocultural sociocultural category ï‚ · Question 15 4 out of 4 points Vygotsky defined the zone of proximal development as the distance between a person’s actual developmental level and the higher level of potential development. Selected Answer: True Answers: True False ï‚ · Question 16 0 out of 4 points Research shows there are gender differences in IQ. Selected Answer: True Answers: True False ï‚ · Question 17 4 out of 4 points The text suggest that there are __________ between males and females. Selected Answer: few real differences between genders Answers: significant differences in at least four major areas major differences in language and quantitative areas few real differences between genders real differences in language only ï‚ · Question 18 4 out of 4 points Vygotsky used the term _______________ to explain how external activity becomes internal activity. Selected Answer: internalization Answers: proximal development scaffolding egocentric speech internalization ï‚ · Question 19 4 out of 4 points According to Maslow, ifShow MoreRelatedNaturalistic Observations Of Naturalistic Observation1765 Words   |  8 PagesWhat is naturalistic observation? How does a researcher collect data when conducting naturalistic observation research? Naturalistic observation gathers data to provide a â€Å"complete and accurate picture of what occurs in a setting,† (Cozby Bates, 2014, P. 119). The observation describes qualitatively events such as how people make decisions and how they solve problems using the skills individually and sometimes as a group think (Cozby Bates, 2014). Naturalistic observations take place in aRead MoreEssay on Naturalistic Observation1165 Words   |  5 Pagesorganized below by the extent to which an experimenter intrudes upon or controls the environment. Naturalistic Observation Naturalistic observation, also known as nonparticipant observation, has no intervention by a researcher. It is simply studying behaviors that occur naturally in natural contexts, unlike the artificial environment of a controlled laboratory setting. Importantly, in naturalistic observation, there is no attempt to manipulate variables. Strength: We can measure what behavior is reallyRead MoreEssay on Naturalistic Observation678 Words   |  3 PagesNaturalistic Observation Naturalistic observation involves recording subjects naturally occurring behavior while they are in their natural environment. This experiment revolves around this type of observation. Specifically, it involves the observation of the various human dyads (male-female, male-male, female-female,) social interaction, within in a public environment. Focal points of observation included conversation space (distance between individuals heads,), and body language. Read MoreNaturalistic Observation And Laboratory Controlled Observation1775 Words   |  8 Pagesresearch are of two broad categories; naturalistic observation and laboratory controlled observation. There are various forms of observational study which include; Casual and Scientific observation, Naturalistic Observation, Subjective and Objective observation, Direct and Indirect observation, Participant and Non Participant observation, Structured and Unstructured observation, Controlled and Non Controlled observation, Concealed and Non-concealed Observation, etc. The observational method usedRead MorePsychology-Naturalistic Observation Essay1781 Words   |  8 PagesNaturalistic Observation Primary Reference Source Loucopoulos P and V Karakostas (1995) System Requirements Engineering. McGraw Hill International. Summary description Observational methods involve an investigator viewing users as they work and taking notes on the activity which takes place. Observation may be either direct, where the investigator is actually present during the task, or indirect, where the task is viewed by some other means such as through use of a video camera. Read MoreQualitative Methods Of Naturalistic Observations1860 Words   |  8 PagesQualitative Methods Naturalistic Observations Researchers when defining naturalistic observations they are noted to be relative or informative fieldworks of observations made by a researcher of research subjects in their natural settings (Cozby Bates, 2012). It is very important and relevant for the researcher to observe the phenomenon in situ (Trochim Donnelly, 2008). Naturalistic observational research focuses on groups of individuals for example: For example, you can go to the bookstore,Read MoreEssay about Psychology-Naturalistic Observation1785 Words   |  8 Pages Naturalistic Observation Primary Reference Source Loucopoulos P and V Karakostas (1995) System Requirements Engineering. McGraw Hill International. Summary description Observational methods involve an investigator viewing users as they work and taking notes on the activity which takes place. Observation may be either direct, where the investigator is actually present during the task, or indirect, where the task is viewed by some other means such as through use of a video camera. Typical ApplicationRead MoreNaturalistic Observation Of Student s A Coffee Line1124 Words   |  5 PagesNaturalistic Observation of Student’s in a Coffee Line In the United States, 85% of adults own a cell phone, with 18 to 24 year olds texting the most (Zickuhr, 2011). Of these adults, 67% reported that they check their phone even if they do not hear it ringing, 44% sleep with the phone beside their bed, and 29% reported they could not live without their cell phone (Smith, 2012). In addition, according to the Baylor University report, studies show that young adults check their phone an averageRead MoreParticipant, Nonparticipant, Naturalistic, Overt And Covert Observations1246 Words   |  5 Pages Mani Kallupurackal Evaluate participant, nonparticipant, naturalistic, overt and covert observations Participant Become part of the group you observe Form relationships with group members- may become subjective as they develop personal relationships with the members Record data on what they say, how they interact Be reflexive Researcher must reflect on their interpretation and how they are affected by joining the group Can get detailed knowledge about a group of people or phenomenon- becauseRead MoreNaturalistic Observation1075 Words   |  5 PagesNATURALISTIC OBSERVATION Naturalistic Observation St. Paul’s School of Nursing ​​It’s Saturday afternoon and I am sitting here in a very crowded food court at the Staten Island mall. I will be observing a young boy about the age of 3 and I will name him Chris. Chris is sitting with his mom and with them is another little boy who seems about the same age as Chris

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Developing Multichannel Strategy Free Essays

string(29) " spring to mind immediately\." Developing Multi-Channel Strategy Dr Stan Maklan and Dr Hugh Wilson Cranfield Customer Management Forum in collaboration with IBM Business Consulting Services Contents A strategic approach to channels †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 1 Process overview†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 2 Step 1 Identify problems and opportunities†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. We will write a custom essay sample on Developing Multichannel Strategy or any similar topic only for you Order Now 4 Cost reduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Improved customer experience †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 4 Improved access †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 5 Steps 2 and 3 Current and future state analysis †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 6 Define the marketing context †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 6 Sales complexity matrix †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Product coverage map – current and future state †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 8 Building alternate channel chains †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 10 Step 4 Assess alternatives and choose†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 13 Channel curves – how customers value alternatives †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 13 Cost analysis †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4 Prioritisation matrix †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 15 Step 5 Implementation†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 18 Metrics†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 18 Testing new channel chains†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 19 Customer research cannot predict outcomes †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 9 Experimental design helps†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 19 Roll out†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 20 People must support new ways of working†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 20 Management, not technology, guides channel innovation †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 21 Summary comments †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 3 Step 1: Identify the nature of the problem or opportunity †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 23 Step 2: Conduct a current state analysis †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 23 Step 3: Create a future state Product Coverage Map †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 23 Step 4: Evaluate potential new channel chains †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 23 Step 5: Pilot priority new channel chains and roll out successful pilots. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3 Appendix 1 Directional policy matrix †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 24 1 Cranfield Customer Management Forum in collaboration with IBM Business Consulting Services Figures Figure 1: Process Overview †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 2 Figure 2: Analysis and Generating Alternatives †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 6 Figure 3: Sales Complexity Factors and Weightings †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 7 Figure 4: Sales Complexity Score †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Figure 5: Current Coverage Map – IT Services Provider †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 9 Figure 6: Redrawn Coverage Map (Future)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 10 Figure 7: Current Field Sales Led Combinations†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 11 Figure 8: Alternate Channel Chain †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 12 Figure 9: Channel Curve †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 13 Figure 10: Cost Comp arison – Field Only versus Multi-Channel†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 14 Figure 11: Prioritisation Matrix†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 6 Figure 12: Example of Prioritisation Matrix†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 17 Figure 13: Directional Policy Matrix†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 24 2 Developing multi-channel strategy A strategic approach to channels Distribution and channel-to-market strategy used to be an afterthought for most marketers. Once the difficult judgements about product range, price and promotion were made, channel strategy was determined by objective economic and logistic factors, such as minimum order size and shipping costs. The internet, coupled with a proliferation of complex global supply chains, has elevated channel choice to the pantheon of critical marketing issues. Customers make channel choices alongside their product-service choices and expect suppliers to offer sales, marketing and service across multiple channels – online, telephone and physical presence. Offering all channel choices to all customers across all products and services is too costly for most companies. For many companies, channel strategy is now every bit as critical to their success, as are brand and product range policies. Companies must now determine how to serve different customers through a combination of channels that meets customer needs at a competitive cost. The strategic marketer wants to move the discussion of channel strategy beyond distribution costs and efficient order sizes by determining how channel strategy creates product-service innovations, reduces cost and improves customer loyalty. A successful channel strategy delivers differentiated solutions to different customer segments whilst meeting the marketing, sales and service requirements particular to each productservice. Balancing the needs of customers and the characteristics of individual products and services, identifying trade-offs, identifiable costs to be borne by each channel and creating customer value through channel innovation are the marketing challenges companies face. 1 Developing multi-channel strategy Process overview Channel strategy typically develops in an ad-hoc manner. Analysing a company’s channel policies is sometimes akin to an archaeological expedition: one digs through time discovering layers of historical decisions, sales partnerships and customer deals. We believe that there is great benefit for most companies in treating channel strategy development as a process. Just as strategic marketing planning revolutionised the way marketing plans were developed, a systematic approach to channels will improve companies’ chances of accomplishing their strategic channel objectives. We have developed a simple process framework to help marketers meet these channel challenges (Figure 1). Figure 1: Process Overview Step 1: Problem Opportunity Step 2: Current State Analysis Step 3: Future State Analysis Step 4: Choose Step 5: Implement Cost Experience Access Marketing Context Channel Coverage Maps Channel Chain Development Channel Curve Prioritisation Matrix Customer experience People Metrics Step 1 – Identify problems and opportunities: The process begins with the organisation identifying problems and or opportunities. We categorise these into three types: cost reduction, improvement of customer experience and improving customer access. Often companies are faced with a need to do a combination of these three. Steps 2 3 – Current and future state analysis: These stages make extensive use of tools developed by the Cranfield Customer Management Forum. Step 2 begins with traditional market place analysis; identification of customer segments and priority product (service) offers. These offers and customer segments are grouped in a channel coverage map – current and future. The map identifies logical bundles or groups of solutions and customers which form the basis for development of separate channel chains, combinations of channels that serve the customer at each point in the purchase and service process. Step 4 – Choose: Evaluates each channel chain for its cost and ability to generate customer value. The latter is estimated through channel curves, a research based technique that evaluates customer preference for each channel at each point in the purchase and service process. Finally, a prioritisation matrix is developed that identifies the most important channel investments to be made. 2 Developing multi-channel strategy Step 5 – Implement: Implementation is a critical element of channel marketing. Channel innovation is challenging for organisations because of the people issues involved – customers and sales people. This section of the report illustrates the importance of test marketing channel innovation, aligning compensation plans to desired behaviour and ensuring the new channel system is able to â€Å"learn† from customer experience, and adapt as it is rolled out. 3 Developing multi-channel strategy Step 1 Identify problems and opportunities There are a limited number of famous examples of reinventing industries through channel innovation: E-Bay and Amazon spring to mind immediately. You read "Developing Multichannel Strategy" in category "Essay examples" Those companies started from the â€Å"white sheet of paper† or the third process stage of the above model. The firms participating in our collaborative research project are all established players in their markets with existing channel structures. They may be responding to low cost, internet pure play competitors. For established companies embarking on channel strategy development, it is worthwhile to engage senior management in a discussion about the objectives of channel policies. Our experience suggests that it is useful to frame the discussion around a limited number of strategic objectives: cost reduction, improved customer experience and better customer access to the company (e. g. overage). Cost reduction Cost reduction is self explanatory. Many established firms face the twin challenges of customers expecting their traditional personal (expensive) sales and service whilst willing to pay only at prices charged by new competitors operating, for example, only via the internet. BT’s Major Business unit, dedicated to serving its largest customers, faced just such a challenge. Tr aditional telephony revenues were flat or declining as costs fell throughout the industry. Growth was generated through increased sales of IT related solutions such as routers and servers. Margins are lower in IT versus telephony and the channel â€Å"norm† was different indirect channels and self service over the internet. BT could not profitably compete in the new areas whilst retaining its channel structure and cost. By allocating sales tasks sensibly between field sales, desk based sales and the internet, BT reduced costs as a percentage of revenue through channel strategy – whilst increasing market coverage. Improved customer experience Improved customer experience is linked with customer retention and increased recommendation. Companies normally measure key indicators of their customer processes (e. g. telephone answering, complete orders on time, resolution of customer problem with first phone call) to illustrate the efficiency of their customer management but they measure their effectiveness with customer satisfaction scores. There are very few executives today that fail to espouse their need for improved customer satisfaction – this is rapidly becoming the motherhood and apple pie of boardroom conversation. But improving customer experience normally entails costs – better people, better systems, more capacity. Of course, every company wants improved customer experience at lower cost per customer, but this is rarely possible. Often the strategy is to â€Å"encourage† 4 Developing multi-channel strategy self ordering and service online and convincing oneself that customers really prefer this experience. This is not always true, nor is measuring customer satisfaction always instructive. Increased customer satisfaction does not necessarily change customers’ buying behaviour and customers defect to competitors for different reasons than they remain loyal. The message is clear. Customer experience is an essential part of marketing and customer retention, particularly in the services sectors. But companies cannot invest on the basis of â€Å"more is better†. Companies need to understand how customers value each element of the package of benefits they receive and how they make trade offs between them; how much experience would a customer sacrifice for lower prices online? How will improved customer experience lead to business outcomes? Land’s End, a successful mail order clothing retailer, embraced the internet early on. It understood selling clothes to people not able to try them on in a shop, so the addition of the online channel to its traditional telephone-catalogue one, was not too difficult. It uses the internet to extend and enhance its customer experience by providing complementary services. For example, one can design and dress up a virtual personal model to sample clothing virtually. Nonetheless, Land’s End displays prominently its toll free number so that online customers can immediately access helpful call centre staff. It also offers real time chat and personal assistance. Land’s End’s investment in the online channel was not justified by reduced call centre costs – it is there to provide a better customer experience. Improved access Finally, improving customers’ access to your products and services is a basic tenet of good business and a traditional channel strategy objective. With new technology, companies can offer unprecedented access to sales, service and customer data ubiquitously. Companies can now access customer segments hitherto unreachable or unprofitable to serve. BT’s Major Business Unit’s channel innovations not only reduced its costs, but allowed BT to increase account penetration. For example, a BT Account Director might negotiate the right to sell leased lines (typically low value items) to each branch of a national financial services company. Whilst the deal is negotiated with the customer’s head office, it is sold branch by branch with a desk-based telephone channel. Previously, the Account Director would have had to organise field sales people to call on each branch – uneconomical. Improved access increased sales. Many estate agents offer online services to improve customer access to their databases of properties and, more importantly, improve access to updates in property details. Whereas, previously, potential buyers would need to call agents regularly and receive posted updates of properties, changes in prices or competing bids, now they can be notified online or via SMS messages. 5 Developing multi-channel strategy Steps 2 and 3 Current and future state analysis Strategic alternatives can be developed through analysis of current channel combinations and generating imaginative new ones. See Figure 2. The tools used for analysing the current state and determining the future state are identical so these steps are discussed together. Figure 2: Analysis and Generating Alternatives Define the Market Context Define the market Determine customer segments Determine product-service priorities Generate Channel Strategy Alternatives Sales complexity Matrix -product complexity and customer value 2. Product coverage map -current state analysis 4. Generate alternative channel chains 3. Future coverage map – Create productcustomer combinations Define the marketing context Whilst the focus of this paper is channel strategy, the framework illustrates that channel strategy should be considered in the context of the company’s product (service) strategy. The salient aspects are: †¢ Agreeing the market definition as consumers or end customers would define it. Mapping the flow of goods and services through to the end customer to determine who buys what from whom. Segmenting the market into distinct, needs based customer segments. Setting appropriate investment strategies for each productservice market on the basis of your competitiveness in the market and the market’s inherent attractiveness. Normally, this is done with the Directional Policy Matrix, a strategic marketing planning tool described in Appendix 1. †¢ †¢ The market context illustrates the major market segments and the strength of existing distribution networks from suppliers through intermediaries (hereafter the channel chain). It also determines the priority productsservices for channel investment. It provides the necessary background 6 Developing multi-channel strategy data for analysing current channel policy and generating alternatives for the future. Sales complexity matrix The first step in the analysis of the current state is to determine the sales complexity for each of the priority offers (combinations of product and or service) determined above. The more complex a product (service) is to sale and service, the more complex, personal and interactive the effort required by the company. Conversely, buying low cost, low risk, easy to configure products can often be done directly by customers online. Most often a sale, even for complex solutions, is made through a combination of channels, but one channel is designated as the lead or prime channel. Sales complexity is one of two prime determinants of the dominant channel: the other is how important the customer. Sales complexity can be estimated as a weighted average of scores for each of the key components of sales complexity. Let us take the case of an IT service provider. It provides three types of services: computer installation, configuration of sales and marketing software applications and marketing consulting. Under each of these three service headings there are three to five more specific service offers. For example, the software configuration services comprise the installation of complex front office solutions, databases, data mining tools, sales force automation systems and simple contact management systems. The company determines factors that comprise sales complexity and then determines a weighting for each factor to arrive at the following list and weightings (Figure 3): Figure 3: Sales Complexity Factors and Weightings Complexity Factor Order size – the bigger the order, the more complex Limited customer knowledge of the product or service – less customer knowledge creates more complexity Length of the sales cycle – long sales cycles increase complexity Difficulty configuring – installing – the more difficult to configure, the more complex the sale Training – the greater the requirement to train customers in the use of the application/equipment, the more complex After sales service – the more service required, the more complex the sale Weighting .15 . 25 . 10 . 20 . 20 . 10 Against each of the services offered, the company scores each of the complexity factors from one to ten in order to create a weighted average score for each line of service (Figure 4). 7 Developing multi-channel strategy Figure 4: Sales Complexity Score Order size Limited Customer knowledge Sales cycle Configuration Training Service Sales Complexity Score Weighting Application Configuration Front Office Database Data Mining Tools Sales Force Automation Contact Management Hardware Deployment Desktop Mobile phone PDA Laptop Consulting Service DB management Sales Network Customer strategy 0. 5 10 7 3 5 2 8 6 4 7 5 5 3 0. 25 7 6 9 5 2 2 5 7 3 5 7 10 0. 1 7 6 3 5 2 2 5 7 2 7 7 7 0. 2 7 9 5 7 2 3 6 7 3 8 8 6 0. 2 7 8 9 6 2 3 4 5 3 6 6 NA 0. 1 4 3 5 4 2 3 4 4 4 7 7 NA 7. 15 6. 85 6. 3 5. 5 2 3. 4 5. 05 5. 85 3. 6 6. 2 6. 7 7. 3 Product coverage map – current and future state The product coverage map identifies how we wish to reach our customers as a function of the complexity of the product-services that we sell to them and the attractiveness of the customer. It determines the lead channel for combinations of customer segments and product-services from the perspective of the company’s strategy. The customer perspective is developed in the next phase (channel chains) and overlaid onto the coverage map to provide a balance between company and customer agendas. The coverage map is constructed sequentially from the following: †¢ Sales complexity scores on agreed dimensions to generate a continuum from simple to highly complex. The products and services considered in this phase are normally those identified as important from the Directional Policy Matrix. Major customer segments ideally defined in the first stage (Marketing Context). Developing ontiguous blocks of customer-complexity service space. †¢ †¢ The company in this example identifies its priority customer segments from the market context and they are listed below in reverse order: †¢ †¢ †¢ Owner managed businesses Mid sized retail financial services providers Large professional services companies Figure 5 illustrates two axes of the coverage map: (1) customer segments (prioritised) and (2) product-services ranked in order of complexity. 8 Developing multi-channel strategy The middle of the matrix describes how the company sells each productservice to each customer. These are, in order of INCREASING cost: customer self-service on the net (I), desk-based sales conducted by telephone (T), distribution partners (D)1, and field-based account managers (FS). Figure 5: Current Coverage Map – IT Services Provider High Complexity product-service Sales Force Automation Appl. Low Complexity product-service Consumer Strategy Owner Managed Businesses Medium Retail Financial Services Large Professional Services Front Office Application Database Application Sales Data Mining Network Mgt Tools Database Mgt PDA Deployment Laptop Deployment Desktop Deployment Contact Mgt Application FS FS T I I FS D FS D D T FS D FS I T I D FS T T I FS FS D D T T FS FS FS FS FS I = self service over the internet, T = Deskbased account managers D = Third party distribution partners FS = Field sales – account management There are obvious anomalies in the coverage map illustrated in Figure 5. Expensive field account managers sell some very simple products-services: perhaps there is a culture that an account manager handles 100% of the customer’s requirements. Distributors sell the company’s complex database applications and sales networks to very large companies for historical reasons; does the company lack sales expertise in these areas? However, the distributors may dis-intermediate the company and take control of key accounts, so is this a wise policy? To owner managed businesses, some of these complex services are sold via the internet which has a low success probability. Even smaller, owner managed businesses need some help to understand these services. Figure 6 illustrates how the company assigned a â€Å"lead† channel for each product-service and customer segment combination to reflect the selling demands of the product-service and the size of the sales opportunity. These new contiguous blocks of customer-solution become the unit of analysis for the next stage of the process: building combinations of channels to serve each block (channel chains). Such distribution partners are often known in the IT industry as VARs or Value Added Resellers. They are often small to medium sized IT services firms that provide specialist industry or application expertise. 1 9 Developing multi-channel strategy Figure 6: Redrawn Coverage Map (Future) High Complexity product-service Low Complexity product-service Sales Force PDA Automation Laptop Desktop Contact Mgt Deployment Appl. Deployment Deployment Application Consumer Strategy Owner Managed Businesses Medium Retail Financial Services Large Professional Services Front Office Database Sales Data Mining Application Application Network Mgt Tools Database Mgt D D D D T T T T I I I FS FS FS D D D T T T T I FS FS FS FS FS FS T T T T I I = self service over the internet, T = Deskbased account managers D = Third party distribution partners FS = Field sales – account management The redrawn coverage map focuses vital field sales resources on selling large, complex solutions to the biggest, priority customer segment. Distributors sell large, complex solutions to smaller, lower priority segments. Desk-based sales teams handle the middle ground: modest complexity across customer segments. Self service over the internet is reserved for the simple products-services and lower priority customers who are considered to buy largely on price and for whom a lower cost sales model is needed in order to be competitive. This exercise puts some structure on the channel strategy but it is not realistic in the modern world for one channel to manage an opportunity through the sales and service cycle. Whilst the company now has a lead channel for each opportunity, it needs to build secondary channels to reflect customer segment preferences and manage scarce resources optimally. Building alternate channel chains The channel chain maps out how we can reach the contiguous groups identified in the redrawn product coverage map. If the product coverage map allows the company to find a rationale for how it wishes to serve customers, the channel chain analysis encourages the company to think about creating customer value through channel innovation. Different customers have different needs for information, counselling and support at different stages of the sales, service and customer development cycle. For reasons of simplicity and accountability, many companies insist that one person (or team) take complete responsibility for all communications with a customer at all stages of the cycle. This may be a luxury few firms can afford today. Additionally, many customers wish to supplement their traditional customer managers with immediate answers online whilst their account manager is otherwise occupied. Failure to provide a mix of channels can frustrate clients and drain valuable business development from account managers. Channel chains allow companies to think creatively about how to engage with a customer in the manner most 10 Developing multi-channel strategy valued by the customer whilst allocating customer management resources optimally. Figure 6 identifies four contiguous blocks of channel lead and productservice solution: field sales, distributor, desk-based and internet. Each of these blocks should be analysed further to create business rules for the management of opportunities through the sales, service and customer development cycle. Figure 7 illustrates the current channel chain for the contiguous block of selling complex applications to large customers. There are a number of shortcomings with the current channel chain from the perspective of the company. The limited field sales resource is stretched by taking full responsibility at all stages of the customer engagement cycle. Whilst customers appreciate this simple and personal service, sales people do not have sufficient time to focus on developing big opportunities. During the early stages of a customer engagement, the channels operate in separate silos largely and respond to enquiries that come to them instead of operating to a set of business rules that determine where the opportunity is best handled. Figure 7: Current Field Sales Led Combinations Marketing activities Deskbased (telephone) Internet Distributor Field sales Operations Stage Lead generation Inquiry Qualify lead Proposal Follow up Close Implementation Assess new customer needs Customer development Figure 8 illustrates the result of the creative process that generated a framework for team based selling: integrating a number of channels that aligns the appropriate channel to the different tasks. Valuable field resources are focused upon the tasks for which they are uniquely and best suited: generating compelling sales proposals and closing the sale. Integrating the internet and desk-based channels into the process under the leadership of the field sales force, qualifies out poor leads quickly and therefore allows the company to pursue more sales leads. The teambased selling approach provides better response to customer queries 11 Developing multi-channel strategy throughout the selling engagement and reduces the cost of sale to the company. So the alternate channel chain increases the number of sales opportunities, reduces the cost of sale and increases the sales success rate. Figure 8: Alternate Channel Chain Marketing activities Internet Deskbased (telephone) Distributor Field sales Operations Stage Lead generation Inquiry Qualify lead Proposal Follow up Close Implementation Assess new customer needs Customer development Similar channel chain reengineering is done for all four coverage map blocks identified in Figure 6 to generate strategies for improving sales effectiveness and increasing sales coverage. It remains to assess the impact of alternate channel chains on the target customer and develop a full costing for each to ensure that channel strategy maximises customer value as well as company efficiency. 12 Developing multi-channel strategy Step 4 Assess alternatives and choose The assessment of alternate channel chains is based upon two criteria: cost and customer value. Channel curves – how customers value alternatives Customers have their own criteria for assessing how well a company manages the supplier-customer relationship. Channel curves assess how well different channel chains deliver against customers’ key criteria. Customer research generates a list of key criteria and the weighting of each criterion in the customers’ total assessment of a supplier. Judgement and research suggest how each chain delivers against each criterion on a one to ten scale. The result is a weighted average utility score for alternate chains. Figure 9 illustrates this for our case example: how large professional services firms assess IT suppliers’ channel chains. The new, mixed channel chain generates a slightly higher weighted average customer utility score but the difference is likely within the margin of error of the method. The extensive personal contact of the traditional channel chain generates small advantages for the most important customer criteria but this is offset by a mixed chain’s ability to respond very quickly to simple requests and greater access to technical resources 24/7 because field sales people do not have the deep technical know-how that is available via the desk and online channels. Figure 9: Channel Curve Weights 10 3 . 18 . 17 . 15 . 10 . 08 . 02 Traditional chain (Weighted Ave . 66) Alternate chain (Weighted Ave . 69) 5 1 le op pe of es ie y e er liit q qu na e so pll er Pe s sim tto se a al on o os sp o op re pr d id e ap at R ur cc ac e,, ett pl m se om tis C C er xp le s ca n ni m em c ch bl T Te ro pr off p h hi rs ce ic ne r rv wn s se O ed iis s om es st iin us us C bu y m m n nd U ds an s st er The ch annel curve analysis reassures the company that the mixed channel chain is no less preferred than its traditional approach and 13 Developing multi-channel strategy enerates a list of key issues that the mixed chain must address – intimate knowledge of the customer business for example. These can be translated into key metrics against which to assess the new chain. Cost analysis Cost reduction is always of interest to companies designing their channel policy and in this illustration, necessary for the company to remain competitive. Other companies might find that overall customer utility falls with some new channel chains and they would expect a significant cost reduction in order to compensate for potential lost business. Conversely, some firms may design more expensive channel chains that are highly valued by customers and they need to know how much incremental cost will be generated. Costing channel chains is a matter of detailed estimation of the degree to which different customer groups will use different channels and each channel’s effectiveness at converting inquiries into sales. The exercise generates metrics for efficiency (cost) and effectiveness (conversion or attainment of other objectives) that will enable managers to assess channel policy continually. In this case, the IT services provider compared the cost of traditional field sales force against a team-based multi-channel approach as illustrated by Figure 7 and Figure 8. In this illustration, revenue increases 50% whilst costs decrease so that the cost per order falls by almost 3%. This results in sales costs, as a percentage of total revenue falling from 23% to 15. 6%. Figure 10: Cost Comparison – Field Only versus Multi-Channel Field Only Sales process Inquiries Qualify Proposal Follow up Close Assess new opportunities Customer development Revenue Total cost Cost per order Cost ? 000 2000 3500 4000 2000 200 Cost per process ? 0000 50000 100000 200000 20000 Multi-Channel Cost ? 000 1200 3000 4000 3000 240 Cost per process ? 10000 30500 80000 200000 10600 Customers 100 100 70 40 10 10 Customers 120 120 85 50 15 15 10 50M 200 11900 20000 15 75M 240 11680 10600 1190 1160 14 Developing multi-channel strategy The sales processes above are taken directly from Figure 7 and Figu re 8. Lead generation and implementation costs are not affected by the channel chain in this case example so they are excluded from the cost analysis. For purposes of presentation, we assume that the current channel chain generates sales of ? 0M through 100 orders. The new channel chain will allow more inquiries to be processed but there is no difference in the percentage of inquiries that pass through to proposal and are followed up. The closing success rate is slightly higher in the new channel chain because field sales people are focused on critical junctures of the sales process. The big difference is in the costs of qualifying each lead, generating a proposal and following it up. Prioritisation matrix The generation of alternate channel chains is both a rational and creative exercise. In the examples we present, some channel chain innovations are obvious – this is for presentation purposes. Some of the most exciting marketing developments over the past decade have resulted from very radical approaches to channels. The use of a comprehensive set of tools and frameworks should not diminish the creativity of managers in thinking about novel ways to meet customer needs. For example, online betting exchanges, such as Betfair (www. betfair. com), reduce customers’ cost, improve their access to betting occasions and for the first time, allow them to back and lay bets. The incumbent fixed odds, high street betting shops are responding but the online new entrants generated this innovation. Thinking creatively about channel chains for each contiguous block of customer-solutions will create a number of channel chain combinations that customers will value and may be cost effective. Few organisations, if any, can implement many channel chains simultaneously due to the complexity involved: implementation is discussed in the next section of this paper. A simple means of setting priorities amongst channel combinations is suggested – the prioritisation matrix illustrated in Figure 11. This matrix is defined by two axes: attractiveness of the channel chain to the organisation and attractiveness to the customer. It results in four solutions and attendant generic strategies for each. 15 Developing multi-channel strategy Figure 11: Prioritisation Matrix Attractiveness to organisation High Attractive to organisation †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Revenue potential Increased coverage Margin improvement Reduced complexity Fit to strategy Ease of implementation Selective trials with consumers Priority investments Attractive to customer †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Convenience Cost Speed of response Availability Product information Ease of use Low priority investments Partner Break into stages Gain experience Watch and prepare Low Low High Attractiveness to customer Much of the analysis required to complete the prioritisation matrix has already been done. Understanding the attractiveness to the customer and key dimensions of attractiveness are generated by the channel curve analysis. The attractiveness to the organisation is largely done; the prioritisation matrix adds some new dimensions, such as ease with which the company can implement the solution, fit to overall strategy and ability to reduce sales complexity in the organisation. The four generic strategies corresponding to the boxes of the matrix are: †¢ Invest: The channel chain is attractive to both customers and the organisation so it is a win:win. †¢ Selective trials: The channel chain is attractive to the organisation but not to the customer. Here judgement is needed. Is the potential gain, for example in cost, worth the loss of customer satisfaction? Will customers learn to accept the new channel chain? Will they defect if unhappy? Will competitors follow our lead so that this channel chain becomes the industry norm? Can some negatives with the new chain be overcome? Find â€Å"clever† solutions: These options are highly valued by customers but not by the organisation. Perhaps they are too costly, too difficult to implement or operate or do not fit with the overall strategy. Can you partner with another firm to reduce the cost and complexity? Can the new chain break the solution into smaller, more manageable pieces or be implemented in stages? Perhaps you can trial the new chain and learn how to implement it at lower cost. At least, one needs to keep a watching brief on these channel combinations lest competitors implement them first and take valuable customers. Low priorities: These are valued neither by the organisation, nor its customers, so are generally not done. †¢ †¢ 16 Developing multi-channel strategy The organisation must agree a scale on which to grade high-low on the two axes and normally this is done on a scale between one and ten. The matrix itself is populated with channel chain investment options illustrated by circles and the size of each circle can be scaled to reflect the cost or potential revenue benefit. This is illustrated for our IT services company in Figure 12 below. Each channel chain investment is described by its chief characteristic; for example one says â€Å"field sales automation† and that is the channel chain that essentially enhances the productivity of the current field sales chain. The diameter of the circles represents the investment being made by the company in channel innovations. Figure 12: Example of Prioritisation Matrix Attractiveness to organisation †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Revenue potential Increased coverage Margin improvement Reduced complexity Fit to strategy Ease of implementation High Attractive to organisation Distributor extranet Field sales automation Desk based sales Customer portal Attractive to customer †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Convenience Cost Speed of response Availability Product information Ease of use Low Field sales Low High Attractiveness to customer In this example, we can see that the largest channel investments are in chains and solutions that are least attractive to customers. The channel investment most valued by customers (more field sales people) is unattractive to the company and not receiving a lot of investment. Perhaps this is the most attractive to customers because they are not used to team based, multi channel selling from the company. Perhaps they are not convinced that the company can implement it effectively and are worried that service levels will fall. The two projects that are in the top right quadrant receive the smallest investment. The prioritisation matrix suggests that the company should increase investment in the portal and extranet. Field sales automation is not what customers value so that might be implemented selectively. Desk based sales might be critical to making team selling work but it seems to dominate the investment portfolio. Perhaps it could be introduced more slowly to allow funding to be redirected to projects of higher customer priority. Field sales investment is valued by customers but is not attractive to the company; can investment be more selective until other channels demonstrate their value to customers? 17 Developing multi-channel strategy Step 5 Implementation Developing new channel chains is a change programme and most managers have first hand experience of change. This white paper does not wish to summarise the vast literature and experience of change management in its final section. We will highlight some unique aspects of channel chain change programmes that merit attention. This section discusses: †¢ †¢ †¢ Design of metrics Piloting channel chains with customers Rolling out new channel chains and ongoing development thereof Metrics The prime metrics for assessing and managing the development of channel chains are illustrated by Figure 10, the cost and conversion analysis. Ultimately, the organisation wishes to sell more at lower cost per sale. Alternate chains are developed and their efficiency and effectiveness are measured. Achieving the targeted ROI for such investments is usually contingent upon a few key conversion and cost estimates. However the role of channels in marketing strategy goes beyond sales and most companies adopt a balanced scorecard type approach comprising: †¢ Financial measures such as costs per sale, sales costs as a percentage of revenue, number of sales, average order size, conversion from inquiry to sale and repeat purchase rates. Reputation measures the impact of alternate channel strategies on customers’ perception of the organisation – modernity, professionalism, value for money, value for time, knows-mybusiness, easy to do business with and other relevant measures. Relationship measures include the number of senior level contacts with a client per annum, the breadth of those contacts (in the case of the IT company it might measure marketing director contacts), frequency of customer interaction, customer satisfaction, customer willingness to recommend our company. Knowledge tries to measure how much we know about each customer’s behaviour, attitude and purchase process. People looks at the extent to which our own customer facing people are satisfied, engaged, productive, supportive of the business’ overall goals, feeling confident about their customer management competencies. †¢ †¢ †¢ 18 Developing multi-channel strategy For a comprehensive review of metrics see the Customer Management Forum white paper ‘Measuring multi-channel effectiveness using the balanced scorecard’. Testing new channel chains Channel chain innovation represents two challenges: 1. Channel innovations are complex change programmes th at require sales people to embrace new ways of working and are often accompanied by complex new technology. Unlike backoffice automation, channel chain mistakes impact customers and there are few â€Å"second chances† if customer service levels erode as new ways of working bed down in the organisation. The business case is normally â€Å"theoretical† and assumptive. We have described the stages of developing new channel chains and highlighted the need to seek customer research at key intervals. Where the brief is cost reduction, savings can be forecasted. However, where the brief is to enhance customer experience and extend the offer, it is difficult to be sure to what extent improved customer experience leads to changes in customer behaviour. It is intuitively appealing to assume that a better experience improves customer satisfaction and that higher levels of satisfaction generate more purchases. Intuitive yes, but often wrong. Regrettably, proving empirically the relationship between customer satisfaction and behaviour is fraught and companies must test this in their own specific context. 2. Customer research cannot predict outcomes Whilst the process outlines some of the customer research activities that can be undertaken during the development of new channel chains, research experts have long realised that customers cannot predict how they will react to situations that they have yet to experience. So extensive surveys, observation of customer behaviour in research laboratories and even examples from other industries do not predict behaviour. This is not to say that research is a wasted effort, only to suggest that research does not substitute for testing channel innovation on a small scale before proceeding to reorganise one’s entire channel strategy. Experimental design helps Given the difficulties identified above, companies need to prove channel innovation in the marketplace with real customers. However this process must be managed carefully in order not to damage vital customer relationships. We recommend that companies create an experiment where a small, but sufficient number of customers are exposed to the new channel chain. Key metrics, discussed above, are determined in advance of the experiment and they can be assessed in-market. 19 Developing multi-channel strategy On the basis of observed changes in customer behaviour, Sales ability to work in the new channel chains and the ability of the company’s processes to support the channel innovation, a company can invest with much greater confidence. Roll out Some of the case studies produced by the Cranfield Customer Management Forum illustrate how a successful pilot improves the chances for a successful roll out. With hard evidence of the benefit, people are more willing to support the changes required to scale the pilot into a full channel programme. People must support new ways of working The channel innovations we have seen at the Cranfield Customer Management Forum typically involve a company moving from a very dominant single channel (e. g. field sales) to a broad, team-based multichannel strategy. Case histories explored by the Forum illustrate a number of issues: †¢ Field sales forces feel threatened over their ability to control the customer experience (who is saying what to MY customers? ) and a potential reduction in status. There is often the unstated worry that senior management is evaluating critically individuals’ operational performance and ready to micro manage customers from head office. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, there are worries over compensation. Introducing team based selling with a view to reducing sales osts is often interpreted as a threat to sales peoples’ current compensation structure. How will sales incentives be shared between the channels? Managers of new channels, such as desk-based sales and the internet, do not know how to integrate with field sales operations. They are not sure how to measure success; what is their contribution to an overall sales target perhaps under the control of a field sales director? Their teams tend to be remote from the customer and field sales so personal relationships and trust are hard to develop. Companies do not know how to compensate each channel. During the introduction phase, management wishes to reassure the field that its compensation will not be reduced so that incentives for new channels represent added cost. This is not sustainable. Team based selling often requires new technology and that entails risks of the technology not working, or people not operating the new technology properly. Customer facing technology is particularly risky as valuable customers experience your teething problems. †¢ †¢ †¢ 20 Developing multi-channel strategy The Cranfield Customer Management Forum has documented successful channel innovation in such circumstances. The elements common in such cases are: †¢ The implementation of the channel innovation is not rushed. There is adequate time to consult with sales people, train people in ways of working, build teams between the old and new people and just get used to the idea of change. It is not uncommon for channel change programmes to last for three to four years. Of course, throughout that period, innovations are being introduced but at a pace that the organisation can manage. The customer relationship manager remains in control of the overall engagement with his or her customer. The relationship manager is fully aware of the activities of other channels with his or her account and can override the policies and recommendations of the â€Å"system†, retaining full control over the customer experience. Software is tried and tested thoroughly by live sales teams before large scale rollout. Support for changes in working practices are severely undermined when promised technology that makes â€Å"it all work† disappoints its users. People feel let down by the company and distrust the motives behind the changes. There is a frank and open discussion about compensation. Companies cannot be expected to fund double or triple compensation for the sake of harmony. However, the compensation system must encourage team selling. In the BT example of selling leased lines to bank branch offices, desk based sales people receive bonuses for each sale made. At the same time, the national account (field sales) manager for that bank is credited with the sales made by desk based sales against his or her overall target with the bank for the year. The relationship manager is therefore rewarded for the successful desk based sales campaign. In this way, there is alignment between the channels’ compensation plans. †¢ †¢ †¢ Management, not technology, guides channel innovation In all the cases of successful channel innovation reviewed by the Cranfield Customer Management Forum, we found that CRM technology played an essential role in enabling new ways of working to be managed at a large scale consistently. However, successful companies did not begin by picking an application and then building processes that embed the application in their organisation. They started with a clear view of what they were trying to accomplish and used approaches akin to channel mapping and channel chain development to achieve it. 21 Developing multi-channel strategy Once they understood the channel chains that they were trying to implement, they built a comprehensive set of business rules around each chain. This allowed the company to have rules for such events as major customers making enquiries online, telephone based sales campaigns to major customers and avoiding conflicts with distributors’ sales campaigns. These rules took time to develop and often were built with the help of outside consultants. The rules are managed by very senior sales managers as they represent the underlying logic of the channel strategy. For successful companies, the allocation of sales complexity scores to products and services is a top management issue as is the process by which various channels will work together. In order for the rules to be dynamically updated, there are important governance structures established for team based selling. Each company finds its own way to integrate the policies, investment, people development and compensation of its channels. However these policies are not developed in isolation of the overall customer relationship strategies. Resource owners are not free to do as they please; senior managers must live the team-based values that they espouse. 22 Developing multi-channel strategy Summary comments Traditionally, â€Å"channel† was a poor relation to other elements of the marketing mix. New technology and business models have changed this 180 degrees: scholarship and managerial practice are catching up to this new reality. We develop a systematic five step plan for companies to develop their channel strategy. Step 1: Identify the nature of the problem or opportunity Is the motivation for channel innovation cost, improving customer experience, increasing customer access or a mix of the above? Step 2: Conduct a current state analysis First look at the market context: define the market, determine and establish priorities between customer segments and inally determine and set priorities between product-service offers. Then determine the complexity of each priority product service offer and rank the offers in order of complexity. Using the Product Coverage Map, identify the lead channel for each priority customer segment along that ranked order of complexity. Identify anomalies. Step 3: Create a future state Product Coverage Map To address these anomalies, identify major groupings of offer-customer with lead channels. Draw channel chains for each grouping. Enter into a creative exercise to develop better channel chains for each grouping. Step 4: Evaluate potential new channel chains Evaluate in consideration of customer preference (Channel Curve analysis) and cost. Set priorities between alternatives. Step 5: Pilot priority new channel chains and roll out successful pilots. Consider that channel innovation is a major change process. Research and adoption of â€Å"best practice† alone will not provide the leadership necessary for successful channel innovation. Customers cannot evaluate that which they have not experienced. Best practice fails to account for the context-specific nature of each company’s customers, ways of working, established Sales practices and information technology expertise. In implementation it is important to ensure that customer-facing people support new ways of working, implementation is not rushed to meet artificial schedules, customer managers retain control of the process and act as guardians of the customer experience and there is effective feedback between those leading the change and those affected by it. Despite the difficulties in channel innovation, for many companies it is a must-do activity. Since best practice is very emergent, there are opportunities for companies to generate real competitive advantage through channel strategies. 23 Developing multi-channel strategy Appendix 1 Directional policy matrix The Directional Policy Matrix (DPM) is a strategic marketing planning tool that allows managers to make investment decisions across a portfolio of opportunities. Figure 13: Directional Policy Matrix MARKET SEGMENT How to cite Developing Multichannel Strategy, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Religion and morality

Introduction While discussing the question concerning the interdependence between religion and morality, some basic points on the issue must be considered. First of all, it is necessary to point out that religion and morality cannot be regarded as synonyms and therefore, should be analyzed separately.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Religion and morality specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One is to keep in mind that morality does not depend upon religion; so, for this reason, one can conclude that rightness and wrongness are not based on religious studies. People choose their own way to act, and their decision does not depend upon the God’s will. Religion and its relation to public morality Keeping in mind a wide range of religious movements, one can probably notice that the viewpoints on religion are rather ambiguous. For instance, some representatives of a new atheism are of the opinion that rel igion poisons everything. In our days, people’s faith can be regarded not only as a basis for human morality, but also as a great evil. Thus, let’s remember â€Å"the evils perpetrated by the Spanish Inquisition and the Catholic leadership’s scandalous protection of clerical child abusers† (Gaillardetz, 2008). The case seems to prove the assumption that the modern religion is toxic to human society. On the other hand, nobody will deny the fact that religion may shape people’s attitude to public morality. Taking into account certain religious commandments, one can notice many ties between correct moral behavior and a wide range of religious principles. In other words, it is religiosity, which seems to be based on certain moral approaches, but not vice versa.Advertising Looking for critical writing on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Religious principles vs. moral approaches Still, the issue of human morality must not be regarded within religious perspectives, because it exists independently of religion. Morality is related to certain codes of conduct, which are set by societies. Furthermore, it is necessary to understand that different societies accept the term in their own way; it depends upon a person’s mentality what moral principles can be followed or neglected. There is a variety of moral approaches, and some of them take the priority over others. That is to say people have a right to choose how to live, behave, etc. and their freedom of choice does not depend upon the God’s will. There is a strong need to differentiate between morality, religion, etiquette and law. Making distinctions between the issues can give people an opportunity to interpret morality in a proper way. Generally, it should be noted that in most cases people consider religion as a basis for morality, because some of the rules of conduct required or prohibited by f aith coincide with the codes of conduct established by societies. On the other hand, â€Å"religions may prohibit or require more than is prohibited or required by guides to behavior that are explicitly labeled as moral guides, and may allow some behavior that is prohibited by morality† (Gert, 2011). Conclusion As far as morality can be regarded as rather contradictory phenomenon, one can probably agree with Darwin’s opinion that an objective standard of morality is absent (â€Å"Answering the New Atheism,† 2008).Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Religion and morality specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For this reason, it becomes evident that there is no sense to discuss human morality within religious perspectives. The only appropriate way to combine the issues is to consider religion and religious morality. In other words, one can state that while religion may sometimes be the caus e of evil, without religion there is no basis for religious morality. References Answering the New Atheism. (2008). Staycatholic.com. Retrieved from: http://www.staycatholic.com/answering_the_new_atheism.htm Gaillardetz, R. (2008). Catholicism and the New Atheism. Americamagazine.org. Retrieved from: https://www.americamagazine.org/issue/655/article/catholicism-and-new-atheism Gert, B. (2011). The Definition of Morality. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/morality-definition/ This critical writing on Religion and morality was written and submitted by user Angelina Rollins to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Application of Microeconomic Concepts in Personal Life

Application of Microeconomic Concepts in Personal Life Microeconomics involves observing the behavior of an economy to understand how to distribute resources. This study is very important in business world because it influences supply and demand of goods and services, which are used to set the cost of products and services. Both buyers and sellers use the two elements to make financial decisions. This paper will focus on how microeconomics concepts are applied in life.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Application of Microeconomic Concepts in Personal Life specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Supply and demand are perceived to be the most influential factors concerning the cost of goods and services. This means that if the demand of a given commodity is high and the supply of that commodity is not adequate to meet the market needs, then the cost of that item will rise. This can be worse if there is only one sole supplier because he/she will be overwhelmed by the increase in de mand. This may cause the supplier to bring goods of low quality in the market and the sellers will trade them off at the usual prices. This happens because the manufacturer produces the products in a hurry. A smart shopper should not be contended with what he/she finds in one shop, but should instead look for other places where the same commodity is being sold at subsidized price. Competition among sellers favors buyers because each of them tries to entice the customer by slashing their prices without reducing the quality of the merchandise on sale. In addition, one needs to be cautious when making a purchase and the shortage of supply should not be the issue. There are people who are known to judge the quality of an item by its price tag. This is wrong because sellers are out to make profits and to them the real worth of an item is not an issue. It is therefore important to evaluate an item because it helps decide whether it is worth the cost. Many are times when the price of an it em misguides someone, only to regret later when it turns out that the item is not as durable as we were made to believe. Besides, one cannot distinguish a pair of shoes that was bought at $20 from the one that cost the owner $50.This is because they serve the same purpose. The above scenario implies that when the price of items that we require the most goes up we should identify alternative items to serve the same purpose. This is because there is no point of buying an expensive item when there are other cheap items that can quench our needs. However, it depends on the financial status of an individual. Another option would be to wait until the supply goes back to normal. This is necessary especially when the items in question are not needed that much, meaning that the needs can wait.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Likewise, planning is quite beneficial to both th e sellers and buyers. To the buyer planning ahead helps to prevent purchasing items at high prices. For instance, when schools close a parent should purchase the items that his/her child requires in the following season because at that time the demand for books and other learning materials would be low. However, if the parent opts to wait until when the schools are reopening, he/she would pay more for an item that would have cost him/her less money if he/she had made the purchase earlier. Alternatively, a smart seller observes the market behavior and understands when the low and high season commences and prepares adequately. By being knowledgeable about changing market trends a seller obtains enough stock and lies in wait for the demand to shoot up and make his/her score. In microeconomics, it is the smartest people who continue to thrive even when conditions continue to deteriorate. Microeconomics can also be used when one intends to establish a business by evaluating supply and de mand. By observing the environment, it is easy to spot an opportunity that is yet to be exploited. This involves identifying the needs of the people around you to determine what items you can sell to them. Going blindly will cause a noble idea to fail. Some people want to venture into businesses that have been tried by others simply because they know one or two people who get huge returns from selling particular merchandise. Just because John got his wealth by selling bananas by the roadside does not mean that another person will equally succeed in the same venture. It is therefore important to study the market first to identify possible customers. The same goes for people who wish to borrow money from financial institutions. This is because it is not difficult to get the money, but the interests that will accumulate. In fact, most people fear to borrow money because of these interests. When one wishes to apply for a loan, he/she should first analyze how the money is going to be rep aid. This entails carrying out research on how interests have been changing in the past. This is because the changes in interests could favor borrowers and have a negative impact on lenders. This implies that if the interest rates came down while you have already obtained money from the lending party then you will pay less money than the stated amount.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Application of Microeconomic Concepts in Personal Life specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In such a case, the borrower should take advantage of the situation to repay the loan while the rates are still low. If the borrower hesitates, the rates could increase and thus, the amount to be repaid will increase. Alternatively, the borrower can apply for a loan that has a permanent interest rate because that way he/she would be cautioned from the changes in interests. However, if one needs to borrow money when the interest rates are still high i t would be advisable not to apply for a loan in such a situation. Changes in interest rates also influence investments in bonds and shares. An investor can purchase bonds when it is speculated that the interest rates will go up in the future. This is because the returns he/she will get from those bonds will be much greater than when the interest rates remained low. In the stock market, it is possible to make profits when the interests are low .In such a case, an investor purchases stocks when the prices are still low and sells them when the prices appreciate probably due to increase in interest rates. Moreover, microeconomics can be employed in business management to dictate when an individual should enter or exit a venture. This is because if a business is not bringing any profits there is no point of operating it because it will continue to draw money from the investor instead of generating income. This is very common during recession periods. An individual who is employed should use the knowledge he/she has in microeconomics to negotiate for salary increase. The decline in the value of a local currency provides an opportunity for an employee to demand for wage increment because the salary that was once enough to meet his/her needs is no longer useful. A concerned employer would understand this logic much better. If the employer refuses to listen to such arguments then the employee should look for another job that pays more while still working for the current employer. If the situation persists, the employee should identify ways of surviving the inflation. Some of the approaches include eliminating some unnecessary expenses such as luxuries. Alternatively, when inflation reduces the people who are not employed should increase the frequency of searching for employment because job opportunities increases with reduction in inflation. When inflation increases, the learners who graduate from learning institutions should look for ways of employing themselves becau se the job market will decline and employers will be firing instead of hiring employees.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For individuals who participate in international trade, learning about changes in other economies would help them up their game. This is economic bubbles that are experienced in one country are extended to other countries that interact with it. For instance, if the value of the US dollar rose against the value of Japanese yen then the people who import goods from US would incur more costs. On the other hand, exports from Japan would be cheap to the Americans. In the above stated case, it would be logical for a Japanese to invest in the US because he/she will earn returns in US dollars and he/she will get more profit when the money is converted to Japanese yen. On the contrary, it would be unwise for Americans to invest directly in Japan because their investments will not yield any profit owing to the low value of the yen against the dollar. In conclusion, individuals should dare to apply the principles of microeconomics because it is only then that they can make wise decisions. Micr oeconomics is not just learned for passing exams, but because we need its insight in our day-to-day lives. This implies that consumers, sellers, and the public should make decisions that are based on what they know. If we all applied this knowledge appropriately, no one would be penalized for failing to pay his/her debts in good time. Furthermore, knowledge in microeconomics increases our bargaining power as seen in the case of employees and their quest for getting better pay.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

10 Radon Facts (Rn or Atomic Number 86)

10 Radon Facts (Rn or Atomic Number 86) Radon is a natural radioactive element with the element symbol Rn and atomic number 86. Here are 10 radon facts. Knowing them could even save your life. Fast Facts: Radon Element Name: RadonElement Symbol: RnAtomic Number: 86Element Group: Group 18 (Noble Gas)Period: Period 6Appearance: Colorless Gas Radon is a colorless, odorless, and flavorless gas at ordinary temperature and pressure. Radon is radioactive and decays into other radioactive and toxic elements. Radon occurs in nature as the decay product of uranium, radium, thorium, and other radioactive elements. There are 33 known isotopes of radon. Rn-226 is the most common of these. It is an alpha emitter with a half-life of 1601 years. None of the isotopes of radon are stable.Radon is present in the Earths crust at an abundance of  4 x10-13  milligrams per kilogram. It is always present outdoors and in drinking water from natural sources, but at a low level in open areas. Its mainly a problem in enclosed spaces, such as indoors or in a mine.The US EPA estimates the average indoor radon concentration is 1.3 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Its estimated approximately 1 in 15 homes in the US has high radon, which is 4.0 pCi/L or higher. High radon levels been found in every state of the United States. Radon comes from the soi l, water, and water supply. Some building materials also release radon, such as concrete, granite countertops, and wall boards. Its a myth that only older homes or ones of a certain design are susceptible to high radon levels, as the concentration depends on many factors. Because it is heavy, the gas does tend to accumulate in low-lying areas. Radon test kits can detect high levels of radon, which can generally be mitigated fairly easily and inexpensively once the threat is known. Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer overall (after smoking) and the leading cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. Some studies link radon exposure to childhood leukemia. The element emits alpha particles, which are not able to penetrate skin, but can react with cells when the element is inhaled. Because it is monatomic, radon is able to penetrate most materials and disperses readily from its source.Some studies indicate children are at higher risk from radon exposure than adults, probably because they have more rapidly dividing cells, so genetic damage is more serious. Also, children have a higher metabolic rate.The element radon has gone by other names. It was one of the first radioactive elements that was discovered. Fredrich E. Dorn described radon gas in 1900. He called it radium emanation because the gas came from the radium sample he was studying. William Ramsay and Robert Gray first isolated radon in 1908. They named the element niton. In 1923, the name changed to radon, after radium, one of its sources and the element involved in its discovery. Radon is a noble gas, which means it has a stable outer electron shell. For this reason, radon does not readily form chemical compounds. The element is considered chemical inert and monatomic. However, it has been known to react with fluorine to form a fluoride. Radon clathrates are also known. Radon is one of the densest gases and is the heaviest. Radon is 9 times heavier than air.Although gaseous radon is invisible, when the element is cooled below its freezing point (−96  °F or −71  °C), it emits bright luminescence that changes from yellow to orange-red as the temperature is lowered.There are some practical uses of radon. At one time, the gas was used for radiotherapy cancer treatment. It used to be used in spas, when people thought it might confer medical benefits. The gas is present in some natural spas, such as the hot springs around Hot Springs, Arkansas. Now, radon is mainly used as a radioactive label to study surface chemical reactions and to initiate react ions.While radon is not considered a commercial product, it may be produced by isolating gases off of a radium salt. The gas mixture can then be sparked to combine hydrogen and oxygen, removing them as water. Carbon dioxide is removed by adsorption. Then, radon may be isolated from nitrogen by freezing out the radon. Sources Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 4.122. ISBN 1439855110Kusky, Timothy M. (2003). Geological Hazards: A Sourcebook. Greenwood Press. pp. 236–239. ISBN 9781573564694.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

International Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 7

International Business - Essay Example In this case, entrepreneurs are able to assess and identify businesses opportunity by evaluating different cultural requirements. As such, a close scrutiny of a specific culture will reveal the types of business opportunities that are viable in that particular area. Therefore, cultural diversity has its indispensible place in the heart of businesses. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that while businesses become big until they break cultural barriers, other regions suffer cultural infringement. This implies that globalization adversely affect cultural diversity. According to Kanuka (2008, p.117), globalization has lead to the loss of individualism and identity of a given group of people. In this case, many societies have blamed globalization for encouraging the Western ideal of individualism. As such, some cultural aspects are regarded as inferior to others. In this case, globalization has promoted a homogeneous set of beliefs and values. Moreover, the dominant population or culture overwhelms others and as such, globalization. Kanuka (2008, p.124) also argues that e-learning and technologies perpetuate colonization by designing prospectus that reflects the cognitive styles of the dominant